When the cistern is full, the flush valve seal sits across the bottom opening which would otherwise empty the water down to the toilet below. The cistern seal is held in place by the pressure of the water above. Meanwhile, the float on top of the seal is trying to lift the seal and let the water escape. The downward water pressure is greater than the lifting force of the float, so the seal stays in place and the water remains in the cistern. (In fact, the float is normally underneath the seal. I have just drawn it this way as it gives a better demonstration of the principle involved).
(Inlet valve not shown)
When the handle/lever is pushed down, the attached chain lifts the seal, which allows the water to flow past the seal and down into the toilet bowl. Since there is now water below and above the seal there is no pressure from the water to push down on the seal and close off the water flow. The float is now free to lift the seal and keep the drain open while the water flows down into the toilet bowl. This happens even though the handle/lever may no longer be held down.
(Inlet valve not shown)
Once the water has emptied into the toilet bowl below there is no water left to lift the float. Gravity takes over and the seal once more falls shut across the opening.
The inlet valve now begins filling the cistern. The incoming water pressure holds the seal shut over the opening. As the water rises the float will try to lift the seal up. However, the water pressure bearing down is strong enough to overcome the float’s lift, so the seal remains closed.
(Inlet valve not shown)
The inlet valve will continue to fill the cistern until the incoming water reaches the correct level and shuts off. The cistern is then “loaded” with water until the next flush.
A dual flush valve is slightly more complex than the single flush unit but works on the same principle. Instead of one float there are two.
Modern dual flush valves are usually cylindrical in shape. The full-flush float is positioned at the bottom of the cylinder, as with a single flush valve, and is operated by the full flush button positioned above on the cistern lid. The half-flush float is positioned half way up the valve body and is operated by the half flush button above. Both the full-flush float and the half-flush float are connected to the seal below. They are not however connected to each other and lift the seal independently of each other. Refer to the diagram for the details.
When the full-flush button is pushed down, it raises the float at the bottom of the cistern. This float is connected to the seal which lifts and remains open until the water has drained down to the toilet below. Once the cistern empties, the float drops. This causes the seal to drop shut and the incoming water again fills the cistern (as with the single flush valve described above).
When the half-flush button is pushed down, the half-flush float is raised. This float is also connected to the seal which is raised and remains open until the water drains below the level of the half flush float. Once this float is exposed by the falling water, it drops, returning the seal to its closed position. The inlet valve then fills the cistern to the required level.
Because the half-flush float is the one which sets the half-flush level, the height of this float controls the volume of water released in a half-flush operation. The higher the half-flush float is positioned, the less water will be released through the seal into the toilet below. The lower the half-flush float is positioned, the greater volume of water will be released per half-flush cycle.
Dual-flush valves usually allow for adjustment of the height of the half-flush float. Check the manufacturer’s guide to determine how to adjust the half-flush float level. Some of them require a twist before they can be adjusted, others have a button on the side which releases the half-flush valve for positioning.
Look for a trickle around the inside of the toilet bowl. If it is hard to see, you can put some toilet paper around the bowl and look whether it becomes wet or not. Alternatively, you could put a couple of drops of food colouring into the cistern. If it is leaking, you will see the colour dripping down the inside of the bowl. One flush and the food dye will then go harmlessly down the drain.
When a toilet leaks, it will usually leak into the bowl and the water will drain away. This is better than flooding the house however it can still be very expensive as leaks run 24/7. The cost can run into thousands of dollars. There are two main causes of leaks. The first cause is the inlet valve and the second is the flush valve.
If a faulty inlet valve is causing the problem, then water will pass constantly into the cistern from the supply hose (usually a braided stainless steel flexible hose). The level of the cistern water will rise until the excess flows into the overflow tube. This tube is connected to the flush valve and bypasses the seal to flow down into your toilet bowl. To diagnose this fault, look into the cistern to see if the level is so high that excess water is running into the overflow pipe.
If the flush valve is the problem, the water in the cistern will leak through the valve seal and run down into the bowl. The outflow of water through the leaky seal will lower the level of water in the cistern, until it causes the inlet valve to open and allow in more water to raise the water level. This cycle of leaking out and then filling back up, will continue until the leaky valve is replaced. The common way to diagnose this problem is when the house is quiet (particularly at night), to listen for the stop-start sound of the inlet valve re-filling an apparently full cistern.
The solution depends on whether it is the flush valve causing the problem, or the inlet valve.
When a flush valve is leaking there are two choices. You could try to replace the flush seal, or you can replace the whole valve.
Replacing the flush valve flush seal seems a cheaper option. However, in our experience, by the time the flush seal is leaking it is best to consider a replacement valve rather than fiddling about with the time and expense of replacing a small seal. Often, the valve’s other plastic parts have become brittle or distorted with age so the whole unit is defective.
Flush valves are not costly. Once the job is done the new valve will give many years of service. If you are using a plumber for the work (as you should in Australia), then the labour costs will far outweigh the cost of the valve so replacing the seal and then having to have the plumber back soon after is and expensive option.
If you can find the same type of flush valve, then replacement should be a simple operation. Most valves will unclip near the bottom and the new top part of the valve can be simply clipped on to the existing basket.
(If you are unsure as to the make of your flush valve, just take a few photos with your phone and send them to us at toiletspares.com.au or text to 0415 614 847 for identification and matching from our stock.)
If you cannot find an exact replacement for your flush valve, you may be able to replace the entire valve with a similar model, providing your toilet system is the two piece, “close coupled suite.”
A “close-coupled suite” means that the cistern unit sits directly on top of the toilet bowl and can be removed by unscrewing the two wingnuts under the cistern.
Some toilet inlet valves can be fixed by replacing just the diaphragm. However due to the time involved and the relative cost of parts compared to the modest cost of a new valve, we strongly advise replacement of the whole inlet valve.
Fill/inlet valve replacement is a fairly simple operation. First turn off the water supply to the cistern. Once this is done, the inlet hose (usually a braided stainless-steel hose) can be removed from the valve and the valve unit replaced.
Details vary slightly between models so check manufacturers recommendations. If not sure, give us a call on 0415 614 847
People often ask us, is the impulse Imperial flush valve still made or manufactured? The short answer to that question, is no. However, don’t be disheartened. There is no need to pull out your old toilet and throw it away. Here at Toiletspares.com.au, we can sell you a replacement kit which will upgrade your toilet with a more modern style of flush valve.
Most toilet manufacturers do not manufacture the valves that go in the cistern. Normally they purchase these from specialist companies. There are only a limited number of toilet valve manufacturers which means that they are very large and stable companies.
Toilet fashions change regularly. Styles, colours, and design are all somewhat fickle. There is far more competition amongst toilet manufacturers than among valve makers. Toilet manufacturers are consequently more likely to go out of business.
Imperial was one toilet manufacturer which made its own dual flush toilet valve, the Impulse. Consequently, when they went out of business, people with Imperial toilets were left without an original replacement.
The solution is to install a modern valve from a large, established valve manufacturer which is likely to be making the same valves in 10 or 20 years’ time (valves don’t change very often).
We recommend the Bestter flush valve which is high quality, robust and competitively priced. It also comes with a wide variety of buttons in most shapes and sizes for most cisterns.
We sell the Imperial Impulse replacement valves in a kit which includes the valve, the button and a foam washer. The washer fits between the cistern and the pan in a close coupled suite. This is all you will need to do the job.
The operation entails removing the cistern from the pan. This is fairly simple and is demonstrated in our video HERE:
To purchase the kit, simply hover over the “flush valves” section on the blue ribbon above. Click on “Imperial” on the drop-down menu and chose the valve which suits your button hole.
If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to give us a call on 0415 674 847 or email email@example.com